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Total and Near-total Thyroidectomy is Better Than Subtotal Thyroidecomy for the Treatment of Bilateral Bening Multinodular Goiter; A Prospective Analysis


Автор: Salman Yousuf Guraya FRCS and Abdu Hassan Al-Zobydi 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 119 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 44

Risk Factors of Viral Hepatitis B among Egyptian Blood Donors


Автор: H. I. Awadalla, M. H. Ragab, M. A. Osman and N. A. Nassar 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 157 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 41

A Silent Tsunami on Indian Road: A Comprehensive Analysis of Epidemiological Aspects of Road Traffic Accidents

This paper aims to critically analyze the epidemiology of road traffic accident in India. It is noteworthy to mention that India already accounts for about 9.5% of the total 1.2 million fatal accidents in the world. In 2009, for every 4.14 minute and 1.13 minute one death and one injury took place in India from road accident, respectively. Between 1970 and 2009 the number of accidents has quadrupled (1.1 lakh in 1970 to 4.22 lakh in 2009) with nearly 6.5 fold increase in injuries (0.7 lakh in 1970 to 4.67 lakh in 2009) and nearly 9.5 fold increase in fatalities (0.14 lakh in 1970 to 1.27 lakh in 2009). During the period of 2004 to 2009, road accident rate, injury rate and casualty rate per 105 population have been increased by 8.5%, 4.7% and 29.8%, respectively. In 2009, total 1,08,409 male and 18,487 female died in road accident. It was also observed that in last five years (2005 to 2009) average 84.9% male and 15.1 % female died in road accident. In 2009, total 90,298 people, out of total 1,26,896 accident victims died from age group of (5-44 Yrs), which is the most productive age group for nation. Average percentage share of last five years (2005-2009) for the age groups (Up to 14 Yrs), (15–29 Yrs), (30–44 Yrs), (45–59 Yrs), and (Above 60 Yrs) were 6.35, 29.84, 35.05, 20.97 and 7.79, respectively. The month-wise distribution of ‘Road Accidents’ has also shown more accidents during May (38,928) and June (36,234) sharing 9.2% and 8.6% respectively. Maximum ‘Road Accidents’ (68,835) were reported during 3 p.m. to 6 p.m (16.3%), 64,191 cases during 9 a.m. to 12 noon (15.2%), and least number (28,984) of these accidents (6.9%) was reported during 1200 to 3 AM in the night. The causewise number of persons killed in road accidents indicates that almost three-fourths of the accidents were due to driver’s fault.
Автор: P. Mondal, Abhishek Kumar, U. D. Bhangale, and Dinesh Tyagi 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 321 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 42

Effect of Combined Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter Leaf) and Gongronema latifolium (Utazi) on the Pancreatic β-Cells of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

The study evaluated the effect of combined extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and Gongronema latifolium (GL) on the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty-two (32) albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups A and B which served as normal (NC) and diabetic (DC) controls respectively, received placebo treatment. The diabetic test groups C and D were respectively treated with combined extracts of VA and GL (200mg/kg b. w., p. o.) and insulin, (humulin 5 IU/kg, s.c.) for 28 days. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and blood and pancreas were collected for serum glucose and histological evaluation, respectively. Changes in animal weight were also measured within the period. From the results it was revealed that both the combined extracts and humulin significantly increased the animals’ body weight (p<0.05) from -10.5% reduction in the DC, to 7.6% and 8.9% respectively. In the same order, serum glucose significantly decreased (p<0.05) by 12.49% and 14.96% after the 28-day treatment compared to DC. The extent of reversal of hyperglycemia in the extract treated animals compared well with the insulin treated group. The biochemical results were corroborated with results of histological evaluations: The pancreatic β-cells of DC animals which were distorted and degenerated with shrunken cell mass as against prominent islet cells with normal exocrine pancreas of NC animals became rapidly proliferated upon intervention with the combined extracts, suggesting a possible regeneration of the islet cells. On the otherhand,intervention with humulin did not produce observable differences in the cyto-architecture of the pancreatic islets compared to the diabetic control, confirming an extra-pancreatic mechanism of insulin.
Автор: Mfon I. Akpaso, Item J. Atangwho, Amabe Akpantah, Victor A. Fischer, Anozeng O. Igiri and Patrick E. Ebong 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 926 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 41

The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Millet – Cowpea Based Fura

A three-factor three level Response surface methodology central composite retortable design (CCRD) was adopted to study the effect of feed composition (X1), feed moisture content (X2) and screw speed (X3) on proximate compositin, amino acid and sensory evaluation during extrusion of pearl millet and cowpea flour mixtures for the purpose of fura production. The mean observed value of protein for the fura extrudates ranged from 11.2 – 16.8%. Analysis of variance indicates that linear and quadratic effects significantly (P<0.05) affected the protein content of fura extrudates as expected. The mean value of lysine for the extrudates ranged from 5.1 - 6.6g/100g protein and the methionine content ranged from 1.3 - 3.8g /100g protein. The regression models fitted to the experimental data showed high coefficients of determinants with R2 = 0.96, 0.94, 0.94, 0.85 and 0.80 for protein (CHON), carbohydrate (CHO), fat (FAT), ash (ASH) and water (HOH) respectively. The R2 = were 0.90, 0.85, 0.86, 0.92, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.93 for lysine, i/leucine, leucine, valine, methionine – cystine, threonine and tryptophan respectively. The coefficients shows good fit. The importance of process variables on system parameters and physical properties could be ranked in the following order: Feed Composition (X1)>Feed Moisture (X2)>Screw Speed (X3). The optimum values obtained for feed composition, feed moisture and screw speed are 36.5% cowpea level, 22.3% feed moisture content and 186.7 rpm respectively. The corresponding optimum values of lysine, protein content, expansion ratio and bulk density are 6.6g/100g protein, 16.6%, 2.8 and 0.52 Kgm-3 respectively. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics and possible projection for the commercial production of fura or any enriched protein based food from the blends pearl millet and cowpea.
Автор: K. B. Filli, I. Nkama, V. A. Jideani and U. M. Abubakar 
Рік видання: 2012. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 1,08 Мб     Кількість завантажень: 41

Probiotics and Prebiotics: An Update from the World Gastrointestinal Organization (WGO)

The human intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem consisting of an extraordinary number of resident commensal bacteria existing in homeostasis with the host (Eckburg et al., 2005). This endogenous microbiota establishes a symbiotic mutualistic relationship and impacts on numerous physiological functions including nutrition exchange, control of epithelial cell proliferation/differentiation, pathogen exclusion and stimulation of the immune system (Flint et al., 2007; Cerf-Bensussan et al., 2010). Given the emergent evidence of the roles played by the human microbiota in health and disease, there is a growing interest in identifying live microorganisms (probiotics) and dietary compounds (prebiotics) capable of modulating the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microbiota in order to confer beneficial effects on the host. In October 2011, a position paper about probiotics and prebiotics has been published by an Expertise Committee updating the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) Practice guideline (http://www.worldgastroenterology.org/assets/export/userfiles/Probiotics_FINAL_2011112 8.pdf). In this relevant document, probiotics and prebiotics are defined, being quality, safety and labeling criteria discussed. Information on suppliers of prebiotics and probiotics as well as the main strains used as probiotics in the market are shown. The study also summarizes a number of clinical conditions for which there is evidence for the preventive or therapeutic use of probiotics and prebiotics in pediatric or adult populations.
Автор: Alfonso Clemente 
Рік видання: 2012. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 162 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 41

The Combination of a High-protein Formula Diet and Polyglucosamine Decreases Body Weight and Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Men and Women


Автор: Janina Willers, Stefanie C. Plötz and Andreas Hahn 
Рік видання: 2012. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 259 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 41