Fish pie produced with Tilapia and Catfish as the main protein sources were produced. The products were produced with potatoes (0.31%), egg (2), milk (0.21%), cabbage (20.93%), carrot (0.56%), green pepper(0.04%), made up to 100% with 10% inclusion of Tilapia in Tilapia fish pie and catfish in Catfish fish pie. 41.87% of the flour was mixed with 0.21% of milk, 1inch of baking powder, 10.47% butter and kneaded very well and cut into a circular form and filled in with the vegetables, covered and dressed into a semi circular form and put in the oven at a temperature of 65oC for baking. Fish pie was removed from the oven after 30 minutes and allowed to cool. Sensory quality of the pie was assessed by 25 – man panel from African Regional Aquaculture Centre. Panelists scored for colour, taste, flavor, general acceptability and texture using a nine-point hedonic scale (1, dislike extremely to 1, like extremely). This sensory assessment offer the best opportunity of getting a valid idea of what the consumer wants because they provide immediate quality information of the products. In the evaluation, 90% of the panelist liked the taste, colour, texture of the pie from Catfish extremely. 5% neither liked nor dislike the taste, colour, texture. The flavor of the pie from Catfish and Tilapia were generally accepted by the panelist. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the fish pie sample prepared with Catfish.
Автор: Okereke A. 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 82,5 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 50

Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of ice creams sold in some locations within benin city

Ice cream samples were collected from various locations within Benin City and the total heterotrophic and coliform bio load were determined using routine techniques. The mean heterotrophic and coliform counts observed for vanilla ice cream samples ranged from 6.3 ×103 cfu/ml to 5.83 ×103 cfu/ml and 2×103 cfu/ml to 1×103 cfu/ml respectively. Microbial counts obtained for strawberry ice cream ranged from 2.8×103 cfu/ml to 1.9×103 cfu/ml and 2×103 cfu/ml to 1×103 cfu/ml respectively. Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella sp., Citrobacter sp. and Serratia marcescens were isolated and identified from the ice cream samples. There is an urgent need for continuous monitoring by the relevant Government agency, (National Agency for Food and Drug Administration, NAFDAC) of the local companies which produce this food product. Also, stored cold products which thaw due to power outage should be destroyed instead of refreezing for sale.
Автор: Osamwonyi, O.U. Obayagbona, O.N. and Olisaka, F. 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 99,0 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 46

Sensory evaluation of fish spring roll produced from tilapia and catfish

Acceptance of fish spring roll produced from Tilapia and Catfish was evaluated in an attempt to explore the possibilities of better utilization of undersized Tilapia and Catfish species. The products were produced with cooked potatoes (20%) egg (0.5%), milk (0.21%), butter(10.47%), flour(41.87%), vegetable oil(16.75%), carrot(0.46%), pepper (0.04%), made up to 100% with 10% inclusion of Tilapia in Tilapia spring roll and Catfish in Catfish spring roll. Tilapia and Catfish was boiled in a boiling pot before deboning for 10minutes and then mashed for 5 minutes. The vegetables were chopped and steamed in a steaming pot for 5 minutes. 41.87% of flour was mixed together with steamed fishes and vegetable and rolled out into cylindrical shape with one inch thickness, deep fried in 800ml of vegetable oil and then allowed to cool. The acceptance was evaluated with 25 man panel based on taste, flavor, colour and texture. 80% of the panelist preferred spring roll made from Tilapia to those made from Catfish. 90%$ like the texture and flavor of spring roll made from catfish than that of Tilapia. There was higher consumer acceptability for spring roll made from Tilapia. In the flavor and colour of the spring roll, there was no significant difference observed between rolls made from catfish and Tilapia. Commercialization of these products can contribute to diversification in the fish industry through better utilization of undersized Tilapia and Catfish.
Автор: Okereke A. 
Рік видання: 2011. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 83,6 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Proximate and mineral composition in some freshwater fishes in upper river Benue, Yola, Nigeria

The study showed that freshwater fishes are good sources of protein, lipid and micronutrients. The proximate composition of B. filamelosus, T. niloticus, B. niloticus, C. gariepinus and M, rume revealed encouraging high crude protein contents 33.5%, 34.4%, 37.1%, 38.5% and 38.6% respectively. There was significant difference(p>0.05) in percentage crude protein, fibre content, ether extract, ash content, NFE energy values among the fishes sampled. The mineral elements and heavy metals in fish tissues were in the following order-K>Na>Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Pb, but Cadmium was not detected in all the fishes sampled. Levels of heavy metals are below WHO limits for human consumption. The aim of this work is to determine the micronutrients and proximate composition of some freshwater species from arid zone of Nigeria.
Автор: Onyia,L.U., Milam, C.; Manu, J.M. and Allison,D.S. 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 51,8 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Effect of added defatted beniseed on the quality of acha based biscuits

The acha (Digitaria exile staff) grain was washed (tap water), sun dried, milled and sieved (400mn sieve aperture) to produce acha flour. The beniseed(Sesamum indicum) seeds were sorted, washed, sun dried, milled, defatted (using ethanol), dried and sieved (400mn sieve aperture) to produce beniseed flour. The defatted beniseed flour was substituted into the acha flour at 0-20% to produce beniseed-acha composite flour. This was mixed with fat, sugar, salt, baking powder to produce batter. The batter was rolled (on a steel table), cut into shapes (using biscuit cutter), placed on greased trays and baked at 160oC for 20 minutes. The effect of added defatted beniseed on the physical, chemical and sensory quality of acha–beniseed composite biscuit were evaluated. The protein, fat, moisture, ash, breaking strength and spread ratio increased from 10.5 to 12.9, 1.80 to 2.15, 1.0 to 1.6, 1.20 to 3.20%, 1.49 to 1.67kg and 6.0 to 7.25, respectively with increase in the percentage of added defatted beniseed. However, the average means of the sensory properties decreased from 8.30 to 4.30, 7.20 to 5.80, 8.50 to 6.30, 8.30 to 4.20, and 7.90 to 3.70 for color, texture, appearance, flavor and general acceptability, respectively at p ≤ 0.05 level of acceptance. The addition of defatted beniseed above 10% has a significant negative effect on the acceptances of the product. There was an increase of 12 and 16.4% of protein and fat content respectively, at the maximum acceptance level (10%) of the added beniseed flour.
Автор: Ayo, J.A; Ikuomola, D.S; Esan,Y.O; Onuoha. O. G; Ayo, V.A and Ekele. V 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 53,8 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Nutritional and antinutritional values of bojer (Argyreia nervosa) seeds

The proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, vitamin and antinutrient contents of Bojer (Argyreia nervosa) seeds were investigated. The results of the proximate analysis show that bojer seed is very rich in crude protein (22.47 ±1.12%), lipid (13.67 ±0.68%), crude fibre (15.72 ± 0.79%), ash (3.68 ± 0.18%), carbohydrate (44.46 ± 2.22%) and energy content (390.75 ± 19.48 KJ/100g). The results also indicated that bojer seed. containsNa(23.11mg/100),Mg(4.96mg/100),Fe(16.22mg/100),Zn(1.24mg/100),Ca(5. 77mg/100),Cu(0.14 mg/100),K(30.25 mg/100) and Mn(33.29 mg/100). Amino acid analysis revealed that bojer seed contains mainly aspartate (4.49 g/ 100g protein), lysine (4.48 g/ 100g protein), leucine (5.18 g/ 100g protein), glutamate (7.66 g/ 100g protein) and histidine (0.65 g/ 100g protein). The vitamin analysis showed that bojer contained 1764.72±2.12 (IU) vitamin A, 0.30±0.03 mg/100g vitamin E, 0.082±0.02 mg/100g Vitamin K, 0.038±0.03 mg/100g Vitamin B1, 0.04±0 mg/100g, Vitamin B2, 0.12±0 mg/100g, Vitamin B6, 0.125±0.01 mg/100g, Vitamin B12 and 4.66±0.02 mg/100g Vitamin C. Results of antinutrient analysis show that bojer seed contains alkaloid (2.01±0.10 mg/100g), tannins (1.21±0.06 mg/100g), phytate (1.52 ± 0.08 mg/100g), cyanogenic glycoside (0.043 ± 0.01 mg/100g), and saponin (0.63 ± 0.03 mg/100g).Trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be (11.84 ± .59 TIU/mg protein). The results showed that bojer seed is not only rich in caloric level but also low in concentrations of antinutritional factors.
Автор: Fowomola, M. A. 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 68,2 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Cryogenic grinding of spices is a novel approach whereas ambient grinding needs improvement

Study on ambient and cryogenic grinding was performed to test the novelty of cryogenic grinding and pin point the drawbacks of ambient grinding. Comparative study had shown that ambient grinding need more power (8.92%) and specific energy (14.5%) than cryogenic grinding. Particle size analysis had shown that cryogenic grinding produced coarser particles. Comparative study of energy law constant shows that ambient is more power consumptive. The higher amount of volatile oil (2.15 ml/100 g) content was found in cryogenic grinding and also powder of freshness and lower whiteness (40%) and higher yellowness (14%) indices found for cryogenic grinding.
Автор: Murlidhar Meghwal, T K Goswami 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 507 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Nutrients and anti-nutrients content of dehulled soybean

The nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of dehulled soybean were investigated, using proximate composition , amino acid profile, mineral, micronutrient and anti-nutrient values. The soybean was boiled for 10 minutes, dried, dehulled and milled into a fine flour. The dehulled soybean (DSB) had high value for protein and fat (49.38 and 25.97g/100g respectively). The carbohydrate content of the DSB was very low (12.89g/100g). Leucine and glutamic acid were the most abundant essential and nonessential amino acids (6.62 and 16.25g/16g N respectively). The sulphur containing amino acids methionine and cystine were 1.22 and 2.09g/16g N respectively. The DSB is a good source of phosphorous (1193.3mg/100g). It had almost equal amount of calcium and magnesium (17.5 and 17.3 mg/100g respectively). It was a good source of thiamin (408.0mg/100g), riboflavin (394.1mg/100g) and niacin (603.0mg/100g).The DSB had very high level of trypsin inhibitor (2786.00 TIU/100g). The tannin and phytate content were 34.92 and 42.00mg/00g respectively. The dehulled soybean was found to have high nutritional values but was underscored by its high anti-nutrients; trypsin inhibitor (2786.00 TIU/100g). tannin (34.92mg/100g), phytate (42.00mg/100g), oxalate (27.62mg/100g) and saponin (34.60mg/100g).
Автор: Odumodu C.U. 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 59,1 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Effect of illumination and sclerotia size on the growth and development

Effect of illumination and sclerotia size on the growth and development of Pleurotus tubberregium was investigated. The cultivation was done using the sclerotia on garden soil. Mean fresh weight production by the mushroom was highest, 28.75 1.24g in the set up under shade and from the 25g sclerotia. While the least was 8.60± 0.44g in the dark from 10g sclerotia. Mean stipe length was greatest 7.30±0.71cm in the dark from the 20g sclerotia, while the least stipe length, 2.06±0.45cm from 25g sclerotia. 9.95±0.39cm was the highest cap diameter observed in 25g sclerotia with the least cap diameter of 2.90±0.59cm in the dark and from 25g sclerotia. This results shows that extremely high temperature and darkness has a retarding effect on the stipe length and cap development respectively. Therefore shade is the ideal condition for the growth and development of Pleurotus tuberregium regardless of sclerotia size.
Автор: A.O Oghenekaro, E.O Akpaja and J.O Samuel 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 54,7 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Effect of heat treatment on antioxidant activity of some spices

Spices show potential health benefits as they possess antioxidant activity. The study was to determine the effect of cooking on the antioxidant activity of some selected spices. The total phenol content of five spices (Onion, Garlic, Ginger, Turmeric, and Basil) was determined at different heating periods (1h and 2 h) at 1000c. Although these dietary spice are resistant to thermal denaturation, interestingly, in the case of onion shows reduction in all the tested activities and others shows different variation in all the activity. Total antioxidant activity was measured, based on the reduction of Mo (VI) to Mo (v) by the extract and subsequent formation of green phosphate / Mo (v) complex at acid pH. The extracts were found to have different level of antioxidant properties at different heating time. Considering all the activities, turmeric has good activity amongst the five spice materials screened for their antioxidant properties. Lowest activity was found in onion. In addition to the antioxidant activity of these spices, the total phenolic compounds, flavonoids were measured in the extracts. A correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was observed.
Автор: Ademoyegun Olufemi Temitope, Adewuyi Gregory Olufemi, Fariyike Timothy Alaba 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 57,8 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43

Comparative studies of the nutritional qualities of three fermented African legume seeds using Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus as starters

Analysis into three African legume seeds; Prosopis africana, Parkia biglobosa and Glycine max was carried out. Unprocessed seeds of Prosopis africana were purchased from Otukpo market in Benue state of Nigeria and unprocessed seeds of Parkia biglobosa and Glycine max were purchased from Sabon-Gari market, Zaria, Kaduna state. These seeds were processed and fermented using 5% mixed Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilis as inoculum into 300g of unfermented seeds. Seeds were allowed to ferment naturally along side with seeds inoculated with inoculum in the Department of Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, for 48h. For P. biglobosa and G.max, P.africana seeds were left to ferment for 118h. Fermented seeds from the analysis showed that seeds with inoculum fermented faster giving higher protein and lipids values than seeds allowed to ferment naturally. Fermented seeds of P. africana were richer in protein with a crude protein value of 40.07% followed by G.max with a crude protein value of 38.29% and P. biglobosa with a crude protein value of 36.13%. Fermented seeds of G.max were richer in lipids with a crude lipid value of 18.42%, followed by P.biglobosa with a crude lipid value of 13.01% and P.africana with 12.01%. These seeds were fermented into “daddawa” and “okpehe” condiments as flavour enhancers. The analysis of variance showed that the moisture content, Ash, Protein and Carbohydrate content of the seeds vary significantly (F < 0.0001). On the other hand, the lipid and fibre contents did not vary significantly, (F > 0.0001).
Автор: Gberikon, G.M., Ameh,J.B., Ado, S.A., Umoh,V. J. 
Рік видання: 2010. Тип документу: Складова частина документу 
Розмір: 44,3 Кб     Кількість завантажень: 43